Type of Article: Original Research
Volume 4; Issue 5: 2017
Page No.: 488-492
INDICES OF OXIDATIVE STRESS AND LIVER INJURY IN ALCOHOLIC LIVER DISEASE
Pinky Garg *1, Saroj Choudhary 2, Montosh Chakraborty 3, Karthikeyan P 4.
*1 Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, NDMC Medical college, Delhi, India
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, NDMC Medical college, Delhi, India
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Biochemistry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands Institute of Medical Sciences, Port Blair, India.
4 Senior Resident, Department of Biochemistry, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India.
Address for correspondence: Dr. Pinky Garg, Associate Professor, Department of Biochemistry, NDMC Medical College, Delhi, India. E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Background: Alcohol is the most common substance of abuse causing alcoholic liver disease (ALD) becoming the major public health problem worldwide. During metabolism of alcohol in the liver reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated which cause lipid peroxidation leading to hepatotoxicity. The body’s natural antioxidant defense system against free radicals is depleted by alcohol consumption.
Purpose of the study: This study was designed to know how alcohol metabolism increases oxidative stress and inflicts damage to liver and decreases the efficiency of antioxidant defense system in patients of ALD.
Materials and Methods: It was a case control study of 50 patients clinically and radiologically diagnosed of ALD compared with 50 age and sex matched normal healthy controls. All the subjects were interviewed as per the proforma designed for alcoholics. This study compared lipid peroxidation product in the form of Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant status in the form of reduced Glutathione (GSH) levels in ALD patients with healthy controls.
Results: The results were analyzed statistically and showed that the level of MDA of cases was significantly higher (p value<0.0001) than the control group. In comparison to normal healthy persons the GSH levels of patients of ALD showed significant decrease (p value<0.0001).
Conclusion: Our results reflected increased oxidative stress in ALD and based on these findings we can explain beneficial role of antioxidant supplementation along with alcohol abstinence in delaying the progression of ALD.
Key Words: Alcoholic liver disease, Reactive oxygen species, Malondialdehyde, Glutathione.
- Reuben A. Alcohol and the liver. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 2007;23:283-91.
- Sussman S, Dent CW, Skara S, de Calice P, Tsukamoto H. Alcoholic liver disease (ALD): a new domain for prevention efforts. Subst Use Misuse 2002;37:1887-1904.
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol Alert 19: Alcohol and the Liver. PH 329. Rockville, MD: the Institute; 1993.
- Kurose I, Higuchi H, Kato S, Miura S, Ishii H. Ethanol-induced oxidative stress in the liver. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research 1996;20(1):77-85.
- Stewart S, Jones D, Day CP. Alcoholic liver disease: new insights into mechanisms and preventative strategies. Trends Mol Med 2001;7:408-13.
- Zhou Z, Wang L, Song Z, Lambert JC, McClain CJ, Kang Y J. A critical involvement of oxidative stress in acute alcohol-induced hepatic TNF-alpha production. AM J Pathol 2003;163:1137-46.
- Tsukamoto H, Lu Sc. Current concepts in the pathogenesis of alcoholic liver injury. FASEB J 2001;15:1335-49.
- Clarkson Antioxidants and physical performance. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 1995;35:131-141.
- Karlsson J. Introduction to Nutraology and Radical Formation. In: Antioxidants and Exercise. Illinois: Human Kinetics Press; 1997. p.1-143.
- Farmer EE, Davoine C. Reactive electrophile species”. Curr Opin Plant Biol 2007;10(4):380–6.
- Moore K, Roberts LJ. Measurement of lipid peroxidation. Free Radic Res 1998;28(6):659–71.
- Del Rio D, Stewart AJ, Pellegrini N. A review of recent studies on malondialdehyde as toxic molecule and biological marker of oxidative stress. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2005;15(4):316–28.
- Kaczmarski M, Wojicicki J, Samochowiee L, Dutkiewicz T, Sych Z. The influence of exogenous antioxidants and physical exercise on some parameters associated with production and removal of free radicals. Pharmazie 1999;54:303-06.
- Dekkers JC, van Doornen LJP, Kemper Han CG. The Role of Antioxidant Vitamins and Enzymes in the Prevention of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. Sports Med 1996;21:213-238.
- Pressman AH. Glutathione: the Ultimate Antioxidant. New York: Martin’s Press; 1997.
- Beuge JA, Aust AD. Microsomal Lipid peroxidation. In: methods in enzymology, Academic press, New York; 1978;52:302-310
- Beutler E, West C, Beutler B. Electrophoretic polymorphism of glutathione peroxidase. Annals of Human Genetics 1974;38(2):163-69.
- IFCC methods for the measurement of catalytic concentration of J Clin Chem Clin. Biochem 1986;24:481.
- Portmann B, Theodossi A. The value of liver biopsy in alcoholic liver disease. Alcohol Alcohol 1982;17: 16-31
- Dinu V, Zamfir O. Oxidative stress in ethanol intoxicated rats. Rev Roum Physiol 1991;28(1- 2):63-67.
- Wessner B, Strasser EM, Spittler A, Roth E. Effect of single and combined supply of glutamine, glycine, N-acetylcysteine, and R, S-alpha-lipoic acid on glutathione content of myelomonocytic cells. Clin Nutr 2003;515–22.
- Das SK, Nayak P, Vasudevan DM. Biochemical markers of alcohol consumption. Ind J Clin Biochem 2003;18(2):111-18.
- Irie M, Suzuki N, Sohda T, Anan A, Iwata K, Takeyama Y et al. Hepatic expression of gamma glutamyltranspeptidase in the human liver of patients with alcoholic liver disease. Hepatol Res 2007;37:966-73.
- Nalpas B, Vassault A, LeGuillou A. Serum activity of mitochondrial aspartate amino transferase: a sensitivity marker of alcoholism with or without alcoholic hepatitis. Hepatology 1984;4:893-96.
- Lelbach WK. Epidemiology of alcoholic liver disease. Prog Liver Dis 1976;5:494-515.
- Shen Z, Li YM, Yu CH, Shen Y, Xu L, Xu CF et al. Risk factors for alcohol related liver injury in the island population of china; A population based case control study. World J Gastroenterol 2008;14(14):2255-61.