Type of Article: Original Research
Volume 4; Issue 7: 2017
Page No.: 528-536
ASSESSMENT OF OLFACTORY DYSFUNCTION IN PARKINSON’S DISEASE PATIENTS
Akhilesh Kumar Singh *1, Bal Krishana 2, Meena Gupta 3.
*1 Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Andaman & Nicobar Islands Institute of Medical Sciences, Port Blair, India.
2 Professor, Department of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.
3 Professor, Department of Neurology, Govind Ballabh Pant Hospital, New Delhi, India.
Corresponding author: Akhilesh Kumar Singh, Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Andaman & Nicobar Islands Institute of Medical Sciences, Port Blair, India.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, its incidence and prevalence increases with age. Autonomic, cognitive, and sensory symptoms occur frequently in PD along with motor disturbances. The disturbances of olfaction are major, but often overlooked by PD patients. The present study was conducted on 30 patients of PD and 30 age matched controls, of the age group 40-70 years. Besides motors symptoms, history of non-motor symptoms like sleep disturbances, forgetfulness, constipation and urinary problem was taken, though these problems are also associated with old age. 18 patients gave history of forgetfulness. 19 patients had some sort of sleep disturbances. 18 patients had history of constipation and 17 patients gave history of urinary problem. History of olfactory loss or altered olfaction, altered taste sensation was also taken. 11 patients were aware of their olfactory loss or altered olfaction. Out of these 11 patients, 2 patients had complete bilateral anosmia, 2 patients had right sided complete anosmia and 5 patients had history of hyposmia. 21 patients had no history of olfactory loss or altered olfaction. 5 patients had also altered taste sensation. Identification of earlier clinical markers is paramount for success in putative preventive treatments. Besides olfactory dysfunction, the other clinical markers in PD are: upper limb kinematics behavior, cognition impairment, depression, sleep disorders, and micrographia. Identifying subjects with an increased risk of developing PD may contribute to the development of neuroprotective treatment strategies, as a preclinical diagnosis would allow neuroprotective agents to be administered earlier in the disease process.
Key words: Parkinson’s disease (PD), Olfactory dysfunction, Non-motor symptoms.
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