Type of Article: Original Research

Volume 5; Issue 8: 2018

Page No.: 715-720

DOI: 10.16965/ijims.2018.128

COMPARISON OF CARDIAC AUTONOMIC ACTIVITY BETWEEN OFFSPRINGS OF NORMOTENSIVE PARENTS AND HYPERTENSIVE PARENTS

Ashwani Sharma *1, Rajesh Misra 2, Kiran Singh 3.

*1 Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Physiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, India.

2 Professor, Department of Physiology; Principal, Shridev Suman Subharti Medical College, Dehradun, India.

3 Professor & Head, Department of Physiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut, India.

Corresponding Author: Ashwani Sharma, Ph.D. Scholar, Department of Physiology, Subharti Medical College, Swami Vivekanand Subharti University, N.H.-58, Delhi-Haridwar Bypass Road, Meerut – 250005, Uttar Pradesh (India). E-Mail: sharmaphysio2009@gmail.com

Abstract:

Hypertension is a disease which affects almost entire organ systems of the body therefore it becomes essential to diagnose hypertension at an early stage so that the preventive measures can be employed. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) is used for the prediction, diagnosis and prevention of many cardiovascular dysfunctions. The aim of this study was to record basal Heart Rate (HR), Blood Pressure (BP) and HRV in offsprings of normotensive parents and hypertensive parents and compare the results between these two groups. This study was conducted on 200 subjects of age between 18 to 26 years. They were divided into two groups: control group (100; offsprings of normotensive parents) and study group (100; offsprings of hypertensive parents). The HR and BP values were measured by automatic heart rate and blood pressure measuring machine, Accusure TD 3127, Taiwan whereas HRV was recorded using RMS Polyrite D, (version 2.4), India in both the groups. Statistical analysis was done by student’s unpaired t-test using GraphPad Prism 5 software version 5.03 and P values less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The HR and BP values were high in study group in respect to control group but were not statistically significant. HRV analysis has two components: time domain and frequency domain. The values of time domain parameters were insignificantly less in study group compared to control group but only Standard Deviation of Normal-to-Normal intervals (SDNN) was found to be highly statistically significant. Among the frequency domain, Low and High Frequency in normalized units (LFnu & HFnu) were statistically higher and lower respectively in study group when compared to control group. Our results indicate that there was an increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic activity in the study group at resting level. These findings are an early marker of cardiovascular impairment in individuals with parental history of hypertension.

KEY WORDS: Blood Pressure, Cardiac Autonomic Activity, Heart Rate Variability.

REFERENCES

  1. Third Indian Guidelines on Hypertension (IGH)-III. Available from: http://www.japi.org/february 2013 special issue hypertension guidelines/06 epidemiology of hypertension. PDF.
  2. Kearney PMWhelton MReynolds KMuntner PWhelton PKHe J. Global burden of hypertension: Analysis of worldwide data. 2005 Jan 15-21;365(9455):217-23.
  3. National programme for prevention and control of cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and stroke operational guidelines. Directorate General of Health Services, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. PDF.
  4. Gaziano T, Reddy KS, Paccuad F, Horton S, Chaturvedi V. Cardiovascular disease. Disease control priorities in the developing world. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2006;645-62.
  5. Classification of blood pressure. The Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (US); National high blood pressure education program 2004; Aug. Report no. 7:12.
  6. Hobbs FDR. Cardiovascular disease: Different strategies for primary and secondary prevention. Heart. 2004;90:1217-23.
  7. Khurana I. Pathological variation in blood pressure. Textbook of Medical Physiology. First edition. India: Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd. 2014;337-8.
  8. Maule S, Rabbia F, Perni V, Tosello F, Bisbocci D, Mulatero P, Veglio F. Prolonged QT interval and reduced heart rate variability in patients with uncomplicated essential hypertension. Hypertens Res. 2008 Nov;31(11):2003-10.
  9. Pagani M and Lucini D. Autonomic dysregulation in essential hypertension: Insight from heart rate and arterial pressure variability. Autonomic Neuroscience. 2001;90:76-82.
  10. Kotsis V, Stabouli S, Papakatsika S, Rizos Z and Parati G. Mechanism of obesity induced hypertension. Hypertension Research. 2010;33:386-93.
  11. Feldstein C and Julius S. The complex interaction between overweight, hypertension and sympathetic over activity. Journal of the American Society of Hypertension. 2009;3:353-65.
  12. Malpas SC. Sympathetic nervous system over activity and its role in the development of cardiovascular disease. Physiol Rev. 2010 Apr;90(2):513-57.
  13. Yatabe MS, Yatabe J, Yoneda M, Watanabe T, Otsuki M, Felder RA, Jose PA, Sanada H. Salt sensitivity is associated with insulin resistance, sympathetic overactivity, and decreased suppression of circulating renin activity in lean patients with essential hypertension. Am J Clin Nutr. 2010;92(1):77-82.
  14. Bailey JJ, Berson AS, Garson A Jr, Horan LG, Macfarlane PW, Mortara DW et al. Recommendations for standardization and specifications in automated electrocardiography. Circulation. 1990;93:1043-65.
  15. Akselrod S, Gordon D, Ubel FA, Shannon DC, Berger AC, Cohen RJ. Power spectrum analysis of heart rate variability fluctuation: A quantitative probe of beat-to-beat cardiovascular control. Science. 1981;213(4504):220-2.
  16. Koskinen T, Kahonen M, Jula A. Short-term heart rate variability in healthy young adults: The Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Auton Neurosci. 2009;145(1-2):81-8.
  17. Rajalakshmi R, Akila B and Tharion E. Intra-class correlation among heart rate variability analysis softwares across different physiological postures. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2015;59:2-8.
  18. Muralikrishnan K, Balasubramanian K, Rao BV. Heart rate variability in normotensive subjects with family history of hypertension. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2011;55(3):253-61.
  19. Report: Task Force of the European Society Study of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Heart rate variability: Standards of measurements, physiological interpretation and clinical use. Eur Heart Journal. 1996;17(3):354-81.
  20. Dekker JM, Crow RS, Folsom AR, Hannan PJ, Liao D, Swenne CA et al. Low heart rate variability in a 2-minute rhythm strip predicts risk of coronary heart disease and mortality from several causes: The ARIC study. Atherosclerosis, Risk in Communities. Circulation. 2000;102 (11):1239-44.
  21. Mussalo H, Vanninen E, Ikaheimo R, Laitinen T, Laaksom, Lansimies E et al. Heart rate variability and its determinants in patients with severe or mild essential hypertension. Clin Physiol Oxf Engl. 2001;21(5):594-604.
  22. Liao D, Cai J, Barnes RW, Tyroler HA, Rautaharju P, Holme I et al. Association of cardiac autonomic function and the development of hypertension: The ARIC study. Am J Hypertens. 1996;9(12):1147-56.
  23. Pontiroli AE, Merlotti C, Veronelli A, Lombardi F. Effect of weight loss on sympatho-vagal balance in subjects with grade 3 obesity: Restrictive Surgery versus Hypocaloric Diet. Acta Diabetol. 2013;50(6):843-50.
  24. Dauphinot V, Rouch I, Kossovsky MP, Dorey JM et al. Depressive symptoms and autonomic nervous system dysfunctions in an elderly population-based study: The PROOF study. J Affect Disord. 2012;143 (1-3):153-9.
  25. Satish P, Muralikrishnan K, Balasubramanian K and Shanmugapriya. Heart rate variability changes during stroop color and word test among genders. Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology. 2015;59(1):9-15.
  26. Prakesh ES, Madanmohan, Sethuraman KR, Narayanan SK. Cardiovascular autonomic regulation in subjects with normal blood pressure, high-normal blood pressure and recent onset hypertension. Clin Exper Pharmacol Physio. 2005;32(5-6):488-94.
  27. J. Ferreira, A. Zanesco. Heart rate variability as important approach for assessment autonomic modulation. Motriz, Rio Claro.2016;22(2):3-8.

[space_20]

[btn text=”Download Full Text” tcolor=#FFF thovercolor=#0000FF link=”http://imedsciences.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/IJIMS.2018.128.pdf” target=”_self”]

[btn text=”TOC” tcolor=#FFF thovercolor=#0000FF link=”http://www.imedsciences.com/vol-5-8/” target=”_self”]